Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt
International Tourism Management


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ITM Master 3. Sem.
8103: International Management III


Analysing Culture: Hofstede, Before and Beyond

Based on M/A Ch. 2+3 incl. Case Studies


ITM Master 3. Sem.
8103: International Management III


Beyond Hofstede

International Management in a globalized world is faced with the task of successful "Diversity Management". It has to take into account that no longer simple "intercultural" concepts are working, as almost no country has a "pure" national culture without strong outside influences, as more and more staff members, customers, business partners are not rooted in just one culture. Still, management without careful tuning to cultural influences is bound to fail.

Geert Hofstede has been for many years the "father" of the most common way of analysing culture within business activities, he is one of the most quoted social scientists in the world.




Hofstede is very successful because:

- first to market

- value-based (easy to measure and quantify)

- easy so understand and use






Some of the reasons to look "beyond" Hofstede:

- Increasing fluidity of culture

- Nations have weakened, Multinational Companies/brands have gained more strength

- Consumers / producers are more aware of different cultures and more self-reflexive

- New research results available



Five main insights (Ch. 1):


- Meaning of culture needs to be enlarged

- Assumptions about culture have to be clearly identified

- More complex forms of culture need to be embraced

- Dynamism in culture has to be accounted for

- Embracing Diversity: Necessity to take an interdisciplinary, multi-method, complementary philosophical approach





CASE STUDIES for Chapter 2 + 3



Group work projects: Countries, Q&A


  Contact: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt FRGS
Bachelor and Master Program International Tourism Management, Office 2.018, Tel. 0481 8555-513
Consultation hours (during lecture period): Monday 16.00 - 17.00 h